Bosnia and Herzegovina is a country in Southeastern Europe, on the Balkan Peninsula. Its capital and largest city is Sarajevo with a population of 369,534 people and 515,012 inhabitants across the entire metropolitan area. Bordered by Croatia to the north, west and south, Serbia to the east, and Montenegro to the southeast, Bosnia and Herzegovina is almost landlocked, except for the 20 kilometres (12 miles) of coastline on the Adriatic Sea surrounding the city of Neum. In the central and southern interior of the country the geography is mountainous, in the northwest it is moderately hilly, and the northeast is predominantly flatland. The inland is a geographically larger region and has a moderate continental climate, bookended by hot summers and cold and snowy winters. The southern tip of the country has a Mediterranean climate and plain topography. Bosnia and Herzegovina is a region that traces permanent human settlement back to theNeolithic age, during and after which it was populated by several Illyrian and Celticcivilizations. Culturally, politically, and socially, the country has one of the richest histories in the region, having been first settled by the Slavic peoples that populate the area today from the 6th through to the 9th centuries AD. They then established the first independent banatein the region, known as the Banate of Bosnia, in the early 12th century upon the arrival and convergence of peoples that would eventually come to call themselves Dobri Bošnjani(“Good Bosnians”). This evolved into the Kingdom of Bosnia in the 14th century, after which it was annexed into the Ottoman Empire, under whose rule it would remain from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. The Ottomans brought Islam to the region, and altered much of the cultural and social outlook of the country. This was followed byannexation into the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, which lasted up until World War I. In the interwar period, Bosnia was part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes and afterWorld War II, the country was granted full republic status in a newly formed Yugoslav Federation. Following the dissolution of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, the country proclaimed independence in 1992, which was followed by the Bosnian War, lasting until late 1995.
Today, the country maintains high literacy, life expectancy and education levels and is one of the most frequently visited countries in the region, projected to have the third highest tourism growth rate in the world between 1995 and 2020. Bosnia and Herzegovina has a bicameral legislature and a three-member Presidency composed of a member of each major ethnic group.
The country is a potential candidate for membership to the European Union and has been a candidate for NATO membership since April 2010, when it received a Membership Action Plan at the summit in Tallinn. Additionally, the country has been a member of the Council of Europe since April 2002 and a founding member of the Mediterranean Union upon its establishment in July 2008.
Bosnia has been inhabited since at latest the Neolithic age. The earliest Neolithic population became known in the Antiquity as the Illyrians.Celtic migrations in the 4th century BC were also notable. Concrete historical evidence for this period is scarce, but overall it appears that the region was populated by a number of different peoples speaking distinct languages. Conflict between the Illyrians and Romans started in 229 BC, but Rome did not complete its annexation of the region until AD 9. It was precisely in what is now Bosnia and Herzegovina that Rome fought one of the most difficult battles in its history since the Punic Wars, as described by the Roman historian Suetonius. This was the Roman campaign against the revolt of indigenous communities from Illyricum, known in history as the Great Illyrian Revolt, and also as the Pannonian revolt, or Bellum Batonianum, the latter named after two leaders of the rebellious Illyrian communities, Bato of the Daesitiates, and Bato of the Breuci. The land was originally part of Illyria up until the Roman occupation. Following the split of the Roman Empire between 337 and 395 AD, Dalmatia and Pannonia became parts of the Western Roman Empire. Some claim that the region was conquered by the Ostrogoths in 455 AD. It subsequently changed hands between the Alans and the Huns. By the 6th century, Emperor Justinian had reconquered the area for the Byzantine Empire. The Illyrians were conquered by the Avars in the 6th century. However, the Illyrians did not entirely vanish from Bosnia and Herzegovina with the arrival of new cultures. A large part of the remaining Illyrian culture intermingled with those of new settlers, some of it is believed to have been adopted by the latter, and some survived up to date, such as architectural remains (e.g. Daorson near Stolac), certain customs and traditions (e.g.tattooing, the ‘gluha kola’ dances, the ‘ganga’ singing, zig-zag and concentric circles in traditional decorations), place names (e.g. Čapljina, from ‘čaplja’, a south Slavic word for ‘heron’, coincides with ‘Ardea’, a Latin word for ‘heron’, and ‘Ardea’, in turn, bears striking similarity with the name of Ardiaei, the native Illyrian people of the wider Neretva valley region, where the town of Čapljina is situated), etc.
Modern knowledge of the political situation in the west Balkans into the region in the late 9th century is scarce. The Slavic tribes also brought their mythology and pagan system of beliefs, theRodovjerje. In particular, Perun / Перун, the highest god of the pantheon and the god of thunder and lightning is also commonly found in Bosnian toponymy, for instance in the name of Mount Perun (Perunova Gora / Перунова Гора). Along with the Slavic settlers, the native Illyrians were Christianized. Bosnia and Herzegovina, because of its geographic position and terrain, was probably one of the last areas to go through this process, which presumably originated from the urban centers along the Dalmatian coast. Thus, Slavic Bosnian tribes remained pagans for a longer time, and finally converted to Christianity. The principalities of Serbia and Croatia split control of Bosnia and Herzegovina in the 9th and 10th centuries, but by the High Middle Ages political circumstance led to the area being contested between the Kingdom of Hungary and the Byzantine Empire. The first Bosnian monarch was Ban Borić. The second was Ban Kulin whose rule marked the start of a controversy with the Bosnian Church, because he allowed an indigenous Bogomilismsect considered heretical by the Roman Catholic Church. Bosnian history from then until the early 14th century was marked by a power struggle between the Šubić and Kotromanić families. This conflict came to an end in 1322, when Stephen II Kotromanić became Ban. By the time of his death in 1353, he was successful in annexing territories to the north and west, as well as Zahumlje and parts of Dalmatia. He was succeeded by his ambitious nephew Tvrtko who, following a prolonged struggle with nobility and inter-family strife, gained full control of the country in 1367. By the year 1377, Bosnia was elevated into a kingdom with the coronation of Tvrtko as the first Bosnian King in Mile near Visoko in the Bosnian heartland.
Following his death in 1391 however, Bosnia fell into a long period of decline. The Ottoman Empire had already started its conquest of Europe and posed a major threat to the Balkans throughout the first half of the 15th century. Finally, after decades of political and social instability, the Kingdom of Bosnia ceased to exist in 1463 after its conquest by the Ottoman empire.
Ottoman Bosnia (1463–1878)
The Ottoman conquest of Bosnia marked a new era in the country’s history and introduced drastic changes in the political and cultural landscape. The Ottomans allowed for the preservation of Bosnia’s identity by incorporating it as an integral province of the Ottoman Empire with its historical name and territorial integrity — a unique case among subjugated states in the Balkans. Within Bosnia the Ottomans introduced a number of key changes in the territory’s socio-political administration; including a new landholding system, a reorganization of administrative units, and a complex system of social differentiation by class and religious affiliation. The three centuries of Ottoman rule also had a drastic impact on Bosnia’s population make-up, which changed several times as a result of the empire’s conquests, frequent wars with European powers, forced and economic migrations, and epidemics. A native Slavic-speaking Muslim community emerged and eventually became the largest of the ethno-religious groups due to lack of strong Christian church organizations and continuous rivalry between orthodox and catholic churches.
The Bosnian Christian communities also experienced major changes. The Bosnian Franciscans(and the Catholic population as a whole) were to a minor extent protected by official imperial decree, while the Bosnian Church disappeared altogether. As the Ottoman Empire continued their rule in the Balkans (Rumelia), Bosnia was somewhat relieved of the pressures of being a frontier province, and experienced a period of general welfare. A number of cities, such as Sarajevo and Mostar, were established and grew into regional centers of trade and urban culture and were then visited by Ottoman traveler Evliya Çelebi in 1648. Furthermore, several Bosnian Muslims played influential roles in the Ottoman Empire’s cultural andpolitical history during this time. However, by the late 17th century the Empire’s military misfortunes caught up with the country, and the conclusion of the Great Turkish Warwith the treaty of Karlowitz in 1699 once again made Bosnia the Empire’s westernmost province. This, combined with frustrations over territorial, political concessions in the north-east, and the plight of Slavic Muslim refugees arriving from the Sanjak of Smederevo into Bosnia Eyalet, culminated in a partially unsuccessful revolt by Husein Gradaščević, who endorsed a multicultural Bosnia Eyalet autonomous from the authoritarian rule of the Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II, who persecuted, executed and abolished the Janissary and reduced the role of autonomous Pasha’s in Rumelia.
Austro-Hungarian rule (1878–1918)
At the Congress of Berlin in 1878, the Austro-Hungarian Foreign Minister Gyula Andrássyobtained the occupation and administration of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and he also obtained the right to station garrisons in the Sanjak of Novi Pazar, which remained under Ottomanadministration. The Sanjak preserved the separation of Serbia and Montenegro, and the Austro-Hungarian garrisons there would open the way for a dash to Salonika that “would bring the western half of the Balkans under permanent Austrian influence.” “High [Austro-Hungarian] military authorities desired immediate major expedition with Salonika as its objective.” Although an Austro-Hungarian side quickly came to an agreement with Bosnians, tensions remained in certain parts of the country (particularly the south) and a mass emigration of predominantly Slavic dissidents occurred. With the aim of establishing the province as a stable political model that would help dissipate rising South Slav nationalism, Habsburg rule did much to codify laws, to introduce new political practices, and to provide for modernisation. The Austro-Hungarian Empire built the three Roman Catholic churches in Sarajevo and these three churches are among only 20 Catholic churches in the state of Bosnia. Within three years of formal occupation of Bosnia Herzegovina, Austria-Hungary, in 1881, obtained German, and more importantly, Russian, approval for the annexation of these provinces, at a time which suited Vienna. External matters began to affect the Bosnian Protectorate, however, and its relationship with Austria-Hungary. A bloody coup occurred in Serbia, on 10 June 1903, which brought a radical anti-Austrian government into power in Belgrade. Also, the revolt in the Ottoman Empire in 1908, raised concerns that the Istanbul government might seek the outright return of Bosnia Herzegovina. These factors caused the Austrian-Hungarian government to seek a permanent resolution of the Bosnian question, sooner, rather than later. Political tensions culminated on 28 June 1914, when a Bosnian Serb nationalist youth namedGavrilo Princip, a member of the secret Serbian-supported movement, Young Bosnia,assassinated the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, in Sarajevo—an event that proved to be the spark that set off World War I. At the end of the war, theBosniaks had lost more men per capita than any other ethnic group in the Habsburg Empire whilst serving in the Bosnian-Herzegovinian Infantry of the Austro-Hungarian Army. Nonetheless, Bosnia and Herzegovina as a whole managed to escape the conflict relatively unscathed. The Austro-Hungarian authorities established an auxiliary militia known as the Schutzkorpswith a moot role in the empire’s policy of anti-Serb repression. Schutzkorps, predominantly recruited among the Muslim (Bosniak) population, were tasked with hunting down rebel Serbs (the Chetniks and Komiti) and became known for their persecution of Serbs particularly in Serb populated areas of eastern Bosnia, where they partly retaliated against Serbian Chetniks who in fall 1914 had carried out attacks against the Muslim population in the area. The proceedings of the Austro-Hungarian authorities led to around 5,500 citizens of Serb ethnicity in Bosnia and Herzegovina being arrested, and between 700 and 2,200 died in prison while 460 were executed. Around 5,200 Serb families were forcibly expelled from Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Following the war, Bosnia and Herzegovina joined the South Slav Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (soon renamed Yugoslavia). Political life in Bosnia at this time was marked by two major trends: social and economic unrest over property redistribution, and formation of several political parties that frequently changed coalitions and alliances with parties in other Yugoslav regions. The dominant ideological conflict of the Yugoslav state, between Croatian regionalism and Serbian centralization, was approached differently by Bosnia’s major ethnic groups and was dependent on the overall political atmosphere. The political reforms brought about in the newly established Yugoslavian kingdom saw few benefits for the Bosniaks; according to the 1910 final census of land ownership and population according to religious affiliation conducted in Austro-Hungary, Muslims (Bosniaks) owned 91.1%, Orthodox Serbians owned 6.0%, Croatian Catholics owned 2.6% and others, 0.3% of the property. Following the reforms Bosnian Muslims had a total of 1,175,305 hectares of agricultural and forest land taken away from them. The establishment of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929, however, brought the redrawing of administrative regions into banates orbanovinas that purposely avoided all historical and ethnic lines, removing any trace of a Bosnian entity. Serbo-Croat tensions over the structuring of the Yugoslav state continued, with the concept of a separate Bosnian division receiving little or no consideration.
World War II (1941–45)
Once the kingdom of Yugoslavia was conquered by Nazi forces in World War II, all of Bosnia was ceded to the Nazi puppet regime, Independent State of Croatia (NDH). The NDH leaders embarked on a campaign of extermination of Serbs, Jews, Romani, Croats who opposed the regime, communists and large numbers of Josip Broz Tito‘s Partisans by setting up a number of death camps. The Ustaše recognized both Roman Catholicism and Islam as the national religions, but held the position that Eastern Orthodoxy, as a symbol of Serbian identity, was their greatest foe. Many Serbs themselves took up arms and joined the Chetniks, a Serb nationalist movement with the aim of establishing an ethnically homogeneous ‘Greater Serbian‘ state. The Chetniks were responsible for widespread persecution and murder of non-Serbs and communist sympathizers, with the Muslim population of Bosnia, Herzegovina and Sandžak being a primary target. Once captured, Muslim villages were systematically massacred by the Chetniks. Starting in 1941, Yugoslav communists under the leadership of Josip Broz Tito organized their own multi-ethnic resistance group, thepartisans, who fought against both Axis and Chetnik forces. On 29 November 1943 the Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation of Yugoslavia with Tito at its helm held a founding conference in Jajce where Bosnia and Herzegovina was reestablished as a republic within the Yugoslavian federation in its Habsburg borders. Military success eventually prompted the Allies to support the Partisans, but Tito declined their offer to help and relied on his own forces instead. All the major military offensives by the antifascist movement of Yugoslavia against Nazis and their local supporters were conducted in Bosnia-Herzegovina and its peoples bore the brunt of fighting. More than 300,000 people died in Bosnia and Herzegovina in World War II. At the end of the war the establishment of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, with the constitution of 1946, officially made Bosnia and Herzegovina one of six constituent republics in the new state.
Due to its central geographic position within the Yugoslavian federation, post-war Bosnia was selected as a base for the development of the military defense industry. This contributed to a large concentration of arms and military personnel in Bosnia; a significant factor in the war that followed the break-up of Yugoslavia in the 1990s. However, Bosnia’s existence within Yugoslavia, for the large part, was a peaceful and very prosperous country, with high employment, a strong industrial and export oriented economy, good education system and social and medical security for every citizen of S. R. Bosnia and Herzegovina. While working within the Socialist system, politicians such as Džemal Bijedić, Branko Mikulić and Hamdija Pozderac reinforced and protected the sovereignty of Bosnia and Herzegovina Their efforts proved key during the turbulent period following Tito’s death in 1980, and are today considered some of the early steps towards Bosnian independence. However, the republic did not escape the increasingly nationalistic climate of the time. With the fall of the Soviet Union and the start of the break-up of Yugoslavia, doctrine of tolerance began to lose its potency, creating an opportunity for nationalist elements in the society to spread their influence.
Bosnian War (1992–1995)
On 18 November 1990, the first multi-party parliamentary elections were held. A second round followed on 25 November, resulting in a national assembly where communist power was replaced by a coalition of three ethnically based parties. Croatia and Slovenia‘s subsequent declarations of independence and the warfare that ensued placed Bosnia and Herzegovina and its three constituent peoples in an awkward position. A significant split soon developed on the issue of whether to stay with the Yugoslav federation (overwhelmingly favored among Serbs) or seek independence (overwhelmingly favored among Bosniaks and Croats). The Serb members of parliament, consisting mainly of the Serb Democratic Party members, abandoned the central parliament in Sarajevo, and formed the Assembly of the Serb People of Bosnia and Herzegovina on 24 October 1991, which marked the end of the tri-ethnic coalition that governed after the elections in 1990. This Assembly established the Serbian Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina on 9 January 1992, which became Republika Srpska in August 1992.
On 18 November 1991, the party branch in Bosnia and Herzegovina of the ruling party in the Republic of Croatia, the Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ), proclaimed the existence of theCroatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia, as a separate “political, cultural, economic, and territorial whole”, on the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina, with Croat Defence Council(HVO) as its military part. The Bosnian government did not recognize it. The Constitutional Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina declared Herzeg-Bosnia illegal, first on 14 September 1992 and again on 20 January 1994. A declaration of the sovereignty of Bosnia and Herzegovina on 15 October 1991 was followed by a referendum for independence from Yugoslavia on 29 February and 1 March 1992 which was boycotted by the great majority of the Serbs. Discussions between Franjo Tuđman and Slobodan Milošević at the March 1991Karađorđevo meeting are believed to have involved a plan to divide Bosnia and Herzegovina between Serbia and Croatia. Following the declaration of independence of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbs attacked different parts of the country. The state administration of Bosnia and Herzegovina effectively ceased to function having lost control over the entire territory. The Serbs wanted control of large parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Milošević was widely accused of being the mastermind of a plan to build a “Greater Serbia”, the RAM Plan. At the same time, the policies of the Republic of Croatia and its leader Franjo Tuđman towards Bosnia and Herzegovina were never totally transparent and always included Franjo Tuđman’s ultimate aim of expanding Croatia’s borders. Bosnian Muslims were an easy target, because the Bosnian government forces were poorly equipped and unprepared for the war. Initially, the Serb forces attacked the non-Serb civilian population in Eastern Bosnia. Once towns and villages were securely in their hands, the Serb forces—military, police, the paramilitaries and, sometimes, even Serb villagers—applied the same pattern: Bosniak houses and apartments were systematically ransacked or burnt down, Bosniak civilians were rounded up or captured, and sometimes beaten or killed in the process. 2.2 million refugees were displaced by the end of the war (of all three nationalities). In June 1992, the focus switched to Novi Travnik and Gornji Vakuf where the Croat Defence Council (HVO) efforts to gain control were resisted. On 18 June 1992 the Bosnian Territorial Defence in Novi Travnik received an ultimatum from the HVO which included demands to abolish existing Bosnia and Herzegovina institutions, establish the authority of the Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia and pledge allegiance to it, subordinate the Territorial Defense to the HVO and expel Muslim refugees, all within 24 hours. The attack was launched on 19 June. The elementary school and the Post Office were attacked and damaged. The situation became more serious in October 1992 when Croat forces attacked the Bosniak population in Prozor. According to Jadranko Prlić indictment, HVO forces cleansed most of the Muslims from the town of Prozor and several surrounding villages. In March 1994, the signing of the Washington Accords between the leaders of the republican government and Herzeg-Bosnia led to the creation of a joint Bosniak-Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which absorbed the territory of the Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia and that held by the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Federation soon liberated the small Autonomous Province of Western Bosnia. At the International Court of Justice (ICJ), the Bosnian government charged Serbia of complicity in genocide in Bosnia during the war. The ICJ ruling of 26 February 2007 effectively determined the war’s nature to be international, though exonerating Serbia of direct responsibility for the genocide committed by Serb forces of Republika Srpska. The ICJ concluded, however, that Serbia failed to prevent genocide committed by Serb forces and failed to punish those who carried out the genocide – in particular General Ratko Mladić – and bring them to justice. The judges ruled that the criteria for genocide with the specific intent (dolus specialis) to destroy Bosnian Muslims were met only in Srebrenica or Eastern Bosnia in 1995. The court concluded that the crimes committed during the 1992–1995 war may, according tointernational law, amount to crimes against humanity, but that these acts did not in themselves constitute genocide. High-ranking Croat and Bosniak officials have been convicted or indicted for war crimes as well on charges related to the murder, rape, torture, and imprisonment of civilians. Serbs have accused Sarajevo authorities of practicing selective justice by actively prosecuting Serbs while ignoring or downplaying Bosniak war crimes.
The National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina is located in central Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It was established in 1888, having originally been conceived around 1850. In 1913, the museum was enlarged by the Czech architect Karel Pařík who designed a structure of four symmetric pavilions with a facade in Italian Renaissance architecture.
The National Gallery of Bosnia and Herzegovina is a national gallery in Bosnia and Herzegovina, located in Sarajevo. The gallery was established on October 11, 1946, and contains over 6000 pieces of art. Its main focus are the works of Bosnian and Herzegovinian interest. The gallery was open and held exhibitions during the whole period of the siege of Sarajevo and the Bosnian war in 1992-1995. However, afterwards it received considerably less funding due to the failure of the government of Bosnia and Herzegovina to recognize the gallery as a national institution.
The Historical Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina is a museum in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It holds more than 400,000 historical artifacts.
The institution is due to close its doors for disputes about its funding
The Herzegovina Museum is a museum in Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina containing items associated with the history of the area.
The museum was established in 1950 with the purpose to find, collect, keep and present the cultural and historical heritage of Mostar andHerzegovina. It is housed in the former home of Džemal Bijedić, the head of the Yugoslav Government who died in a plane crash in 1977. The building, constructed during the Austrian-Hungarian period, is an example of a mixture of architectural features between the Austrian-style dwelling and Oriental residency.
Museum of Sarajevo
The Museum of Sarajevo (Muzej Sarajevo) is located in central Sarajevo, the capital ofBosnia and Herzegovina and was established in 1949.
Museum of the Old Bridge
The Museum of the Old Bridge is a museum located in the Old Town Area of Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina. The museum opened in 2006 to celebrate the second anniversary of the reconstruction of the Old Bridge (locally known as Stari Most). The museum’s premises are within the Tara Tower and they consist of three distinct sections.
Between May 1992 and November 1995, during the Siege of Sarajevo and in the midst of theBosnian War the Sarajevo Tunnel was constructed by the Bosnian Army in order to link the city of Sarajevo, which was entirely cut-off by Serbian forces, with the Bosnian-held territory on the other side of the Sarajevo Airport, an area controlled by the United Nations. The tunnel linked the Sarajevo neighbourhoods of Dobrinja and Butmir, allowing food, war supplies, andhumanitarian aid to come into the city, and people to get out. The tunnel was one of the major ways of bypassing the international arms embargo and providing the city defenders with weaponry.
Badanj Cave is a cave in Borojevići near the town ofStolac, Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is famous for its cave paintings dating between 12,000 – 16,000 BCE.
The site consists of a semi-cave or overhang recessed beneath a cliff that descends to the right bank of the river Bregava. Two chronologically distinct strata of palaeolithic settlement were identified beneath the surface layer.
Blagaj Fort is a town-fortress complex near the town ofBlagaj, Bosnia and Herzegovina. The old Blagaj Fort (Bona, Stjepan grad) was built on a high, inaccessible karst hill, at an altitude of 310 m above sea level and 266 m above the source of the river Buna.
Blidinje is a Nature park in Bosnia and Herzegovina, established on 30 April 1995.
Daorson was the capital of a Hellenised Illyrian tribe called the Daorsi (Ancient Greek Δαόριζοι, Δαούρσιοι; LatinDaorsei). The Daorsi lived in the valley of the Neretva River between 300 BC and 50 BC. The remnants of Daorson can be found at Ošanići, near Stolac,Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Desilo is a small valley in southern Bosnia and Herzegovina, located near the Neretvariver and the Croatian border. Archaeological investigations in a small lake there in 2007 led to interesting finds of Illyrian boats. Desilo was in antiquity probably connected with Neretva via Lake Hutovo Blato. References to Neretva can be traced as far back as ancient times. In the era of ancient Bosnia and Herzegovina, Neretva was known asNarenta, Narona and Naro(n) and was home to the ancient Illyrian tribe of Ardiaei and Daorsi. The river Neretva provided them life, turning them into town builders, ship makers, seafarers and fishermen that were renowned in ancient times.
Early Christian Basilica Cim
Early Christian Basilica Cim (built in 5-6 AD) are the archeological remains of the Early Christian – late Roman Basilica in Mostar’s suburb of Crkvine. Early Christian Basilica in Cim is Bosnia and Herzegovina’s national monument and during its archeological excavation other items were discovered – such as tombs and buildings for housing. Further archeological research has determined that the Crkvine site, located in the northwest part of Mostar, was an ancient settlement with a number of 5th to 6th century artifact remains.
Mogorjelo is a Roman villa rustica that dates from the early fourth century. It is situated on a hill off the Neretva branch, 5 km south of Čapljina, alongside the road to Gabela inBosnia and Herzegovina. The area is currently protected by the state and is surrounded by a park and a horse farm. The nearby horse riding club was founded 2004 and attracts over 300,000 visitors per year.
Neretva is the largest river of the eastern part of the Adriatic basin. It has been harnessed and controlled to a large extent by four HE power-plants with large dams (higher than 15 metres) and their storage lakes, but it is still recognized for its natural beauty and diversity of its landscape.
Pod was a prehistoric settlement and hill fort located on a plateau on a slope of Mt Koprivnica near Bugojno in the upper valley of the river Vrbas in modern Bosnia and Herzegovina. The fortified site was first inhabited in the early Bronze Age and even eneolithic (2500 to 1700 BCE). After the Bronze Age it was uninhabited for four centuries, until repopulated in the early Iron Age (~700 BCE) till the turn of the 4th and 3rd centuries BCE. It is the best studied settlement connecting the Bronze Age ‘proto-Illyrians’ with the later Illyrian tribes known from the ancient Greek authors.
Berginium was an Illyrian town, near Servitium in present day Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Serbinum, also known as Servitium or Servicium, was an ancient Roman city in the province of Pannonia. It was situated in the location of present-dayGradiška in northern Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Tasovčići is a town in the municipality of Čapljina, in theHerzegovina-Neretva Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina entity inBosnia and Herzegovina. Originally belonging to the Manii, it was on the road fromNarona (modern Vid, Croatia) to Diluntum (modern Stolac, Bosnia and Hercegovina).
Blidinje is a Nature park in Bosnia and Herzegovina, established on 30 April 1995.
Kozara is a national park in Bosnia and Herzegovina, that was proclaimed a protected national forest in 1967 by Josip Broz Tito. It is situated between the rivers Una, Sava, Sana and Vrbas, in the Republika Srpska entity ofBiH. These 33.75 square kilometers of dense forest and hilly meadows have earned the nickname ‘Green Beauty of Krajina’.
Sutjeska is a national park located inBosnia and Herzegovina in the Republika Srpska entity. Established in 1962, it is Bosnia and Herzegovina’s oldest national park. It includes the highest peak ofMaglić at over 2,386 metres (7,828 ft), on the border with Montenegro. The Montenegrin part of Maglić massif in the park has also formed the Trnovačko Jezero (Trnovačko Lake). The Strict Nature Reserve “Perućica”, one of the last two remaining primeval forests in Europe, is part of the park. The park is also famous as being the location of the Battle of the Sutjeska in 1943 duringWorld War II. It is an affiliated member of EUROPARC Federation.
Una was established in 2008 around the Upper Una River and the Unac River. It is Bosnia and Herzegovina’s most recently established national park. The main purpose of the park is to protect the unspoiled Una and Unac rivers which run through it.
Unac River is a river of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It rises beneath Šator mountain, flows through the municipality of Drvar and finally meetsUna River in Martin Brod. Also runs through two deep and rugged krastic canyons and it’s dammed to form small Prekajsko Lake and larger Župica Lake, before it reach town of Drvar.
Lower course of the Unac River and its canyon is included into the Una National Park.